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History of France
By David at 06/05/2009 - 05:00
History of France
58 BC - 481 AD
Roman conquest of Celtic Gaul. Gallo-Roman civilization.
Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties. Sweeping invasions from the east. Hugh Capet, elected King of France, founds the Capetian dynasty.
Development of agriculture and trade. Emergence of towns. Royal power gains ground over feudal lords. Economic and cultural role of the great monastic orders. Crusades.
Epidemics (Black Death, 1397), famine and civil wars. Rivalry between France and England: Hundred Years’ War, epic of Joan of Arc (1425-1431). Territorial alliances and reconstitution of the kingdom. Development of agriculture, the population and trade. First Italian wars and start of the Renaissance in France.
The Reformation. Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants. Reign of Henry IV (1589-1610). Edict of Nantes grants freedom of conscience and worship (1598).
Reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. Royal power at its peak; France dominates Europe, French culture spreads. Start of large-scale sea trade.
Reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Economic and demographic growth. Age of Enlightenment. Absolute monarchy challenged.
French Revolution. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (26 August 1789). Abolition of the monarchy (1792). FirstRepublic. Directory. Consulate.
Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul, then Emperor of the French (1804). Establishment of modern administrative institutions, codification of the law. European wars lead to abdication of the Emperor.
Restoration and constitutional monarchy (Louis XVIII, Charles X). Revolution of 1830. Reign of Louis-Philippe. Economic prosperity. Rapid development of industrialization. First railways. First colonies established.
Revolution. SecondRepublic. First laws on labour, the press and education.
Coup d’Etat by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon I. Second Empire. Political liberalization (1860). Period of strong growth and colonial expansion.
Franco-Prussian war resulting in the loss of Alsace and Lorraine and the fall of Napoleon III. Paris Commune (1871). ThirdRepublic.
Parliamentary power at its peak. Recognition of trade unions. Separation of church and state (1905). Important scientific and technological inventions.
First World War. Allied victory. Alsace and Lorraine revert to France. Peace treaties.
Reconstruction. Paris attracts artists from all parts of the world. Great Depression. Popular Front (1936), development of social legislation. Tension rises in Europe.
Second World War. Defeat and occupation. General de Gaulle leads the Resistance from London and Algiers. Allied victory (8 May 1945).
FourthRepublic. Reconstruction. Demographic and economic growth. Decolonization. Founding of the European Communities (Treaty of Rome, 1957).
General de Gaulle returns to power. Constitution of the FifthRepublic adopted by referendum (28 September 1958). Common Market becomes a reality (1959). Signature of Evian Agreements ends war in Algeria (18 March 1962). Constitutional amendment introduces election of the President of the Republic by direct universal suffrage (referendum of 28 October 1962). General de Gaulle and Chancellor Adenauer sign Elysée Treaty establishing a framework for Franco-German rapprochement (23 January 1963). Economic growth. Social crisis (May 1968).
Georges Pompidou’s presidency (1969-1974). Economic development. Continued European construction (first attempt to coordinate currencies by setting up the "snake" on 10 April 1972, and expansion of the European Communities to include Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom on 1 January 1973). First oil shock (1973).
Presidency of Valéry Giscard d’Estaing (1974-1981). Stages in European construction: European Council established (December 1974), first Lomé Convention signed (28 February 1975), European Monetary System - EMS - set up (1 January 1979), accession of Greece (1 January 1981). Right to vote at age 18 introduced. Abortion law promoted by Simone Veil is adopted (17 January 1975). Second oil shock (1979). Rise of inflation and unemployment.
Presidency of François Mitterrand (elected 1981, reelected 1988). Death penalty abolished (1981). Decentralization laws passed (1982). Rules governing radio and television stations are liberalized (1982).European construction progresses: Spain and Portugal join on 1 January 1986, the Single Act comes into effect on 1 July 1987, the Treaty on European Union (Treaty of Maastricht) is ratified by referendum (20 September 1992).
First cohabitation: The 1986 general election resulted in a parliamentary majority for the two main right-wing parties, RPR and UDF. Jacques Chirac is appointed Prime Minister by President François Mitterrand. This first cohabitation ended with François Mitterrand’s re-election in 1988.
Second cohabitation: Edouard Balladur is appointed Prime Minister by François Mitterrand after the 1993 General Election. This cohabitation ended with Jacques Chirac’s election as President of the Republic in 1995.
May 7, 1995
Jacques Chirac is elected President of the Republic. Alain Juppé is appointed Prime Minister.
Dissolution of the National Assembly and General Elections resulting in a left-wing majority and thus the third cohabitation. Lionel Jospin is appointed Prime Minister.
October 2, 1997
Signing of the Amsterdam Treaty.
January 1, 1999
Beginning of the introduction of the euro. The exchange rates for 11 European currencies are permanently fixed relative to each other and relative to the euro.
September 24, 2000
In a referendum, 73 percent of the French people voted in favor of shortening the presidential term from 7 to 5 years. The 5-year term will be effective after the presidential elections of 2002.
January 2, 2002
Euro bills and coins are introduced. The euro now is used for all transactions in the 12 participating European Union countries (France, Belgium, Germany, Spain, Ireland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland).
February 17, 2002
French francs are no longer legal tender in France.
May 5, 2002
Jacques Chirac is re-elected President of the Republic and appoints Jean-Pierre Raffarin as Prime Minister. It is the end of the third cohabitation.
May 6, 2007
Nicolas Sarkozy is elected President of the Republic and appoints François Fillon as Prime Minister